By Viacheslav A. Chirikba
Abkhaz is likely one of the 3 languages comprising the Abkhazo-Adyghean, or West Caucasian department of North Caucasian linguistic kin (the different department being Nakh-Daghestanian, or East Caucasian). Abkhaz is spoken via nearly 100,000 humans within the former Soviet union (mainly within the Republic of Abkhazia, Caucasus), and by means of a minimum of a similar variety of audio system in Turkey and a few heart east international locations (small Abkhaz colonies are available additionally in Western Europe and the USA). Abkhaz is infamous for its large consonantal stock (up to sixty seven consonants in its Bzyp dialect) and by way of its minimum vocalic procedure: purely vowels. even though Abkhaz used to be studied through a couple of students (among whom P. Uslar in XIX century, or extra simply okay. Lomtatidze in Georgia and G. Hewitt in nice Britain), many facets of Abkhaz grammar (especially its syntax) nonetheless must be correctly defined. Abkhaz is the single West Caucasian language to own the class of grammatical sessions, manifested in own pronouns, verb conjugation, numerals and in class of quantity. Abkhaz is an ergative language, the ergative development being represented now not via case endings, as in comparable Circassian and Ubykh (Abkhaz doesn't have the case system), yet by means of order of actant markers. The verbal root is composed often of 1 consonant, preceded by way of a string of prefixes (class-personal, directional, temporal, negational, causative, etc.) and by way of few suffixes. Verbs might be stative or dynamic, finite or non-finite. The grammatical comic strip of Abkhaz contains information regarding its phonological approach, morphology, and syntax. a brief textual content is supplied with grammatical reviews.
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Additional resources for Abkhaz
1974. Some Notes on the Typological Affinity Between Hattian and NorthWest Caucasian (Abk:hazo-Adygian) Languages. -25. April 1974. Zusammenfassung der Vortrage (Assyriologica 1), S. 10-15 1979. Nekotorye sk:hodnye struktumye priznaki khattskogo i abkhazo-adygskik:h jazykov [Some structural affinities ofHattic and Abk:hazo-Adyghean languages) . In: Peredneaziatskij Sbornik Ill. Voprosy khettologii i khurritologii. Moskva, Izdatel'stvo vostochnoj literatury, 1961, p. 26-37 AR(I)STA(V)A, Sh. 1982.
Jani d-tia-n+:Ja j'arg'a h-ca-3a-wti-m she she-arrive-until anywhere we-go-EMPH-PRES:DYN-NEG ' We shall not go anywhere until she comes' . N a. jt ' somebody he-him-to-ask-AOR-DYN:FIN 'In the city to which he arrived, he asked somebody whom he knew'. e. Causal Clauses are formed by means of the postpositions -za 'for', -q '+na+t "''from', or the locative prefix a+xra)- 'where': a-zcill a-q '+na+t>a, it-for/lit-from lassa-Jassa often e-aizcij~ga-r+c tatlasttin Tatlastan a-Jada-waa ART-south-people a-/ada ART-south d-ca-fljl; alma afada-waa he-go-AOR-DYN:FIN Alma ART-north-people them-RECI-BENF-he-bring-PURP ja-mah 0CJ-j his-son-in-Jaw-and ja-phi-j his-daughter-and r-ba-ri their-see-MASD g_ Conditional Clauses are formed by the non-finite conditional predicates in the protasis, formed by the stem plus the conditional suffixes -r, -za+r'if: (57) d.
1999. The Origin of the Abk:haz People. G. ). The Abkhazians. A Handbook. London: Curzon Press, p. 37-47. 2003 . Evidential Category and Evidential Strategy in Abkhaz. In: Studies in Evidentiality. Edited by Alexandra Y. M. W. Dixon. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company (TSL 54), pp. 243-272. -Forthcoming. A Grammar of Sadz Abkhaz. P. 1970. Sistema vremen i osnovnykh modal'nykh obrazovanij v abkhazskoabazinskikh dialektakh [The System of Tenses and Basic Modal Formations in the Abkhaz- Abaza Dialects).
Abkhaz by Viacheslav A. Chirikba