By Jason Ripper
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Extra info for American Stories: Living American History, Volume I, To 1877
Less than a year after Bacon’s death, Cockacoeske led a delegation of tribes into a negotiation with Crown ofﬁcials. The resulting 1677 Treaty of Middle Plantation reinforced Cockacoeske’s dominion over the old tribes of the Powhatan confederacy, while cementing the Crown’s dominion over her and other tribes. The treaty provided certain assurances to signatory tribes that their land rights would be respected, but they had to abide by colonial laws. Virginia and the king emerged victorious, at least on paper.
There were indentured, white female servants in Virginia at the time, but seemingly no white female slaves, so the law was making slavery and African heritage one and the same. Anthony and Mary Johnson moved to Maryland in 1665 onto a 350-acre plantation. After Anthony died, in 1670 the courts in Virginia seized his old property, declaring that a “negroe” was by deﬁnition an “alien” and could not be guaranteed property rights. Slowly deﬁnitions of citizenship blended into deﬁnitions of skin color, restricting the rights and liberties of African-Americans, slave and free alike.
Experience had led to innovation. Experience led to the separation of church and state. This was one culmination in the Judeo-Christian tradition: a dawning recognition that reason and faith could coexist at a slight remove so that both might be promoted and protected. Anne Hutchinson and her husband, William, were separated for six months in 1637–1638 so that he could get to Aquidneck Island ahead of her to begin building their new home. He lived in a simple hut at ﬁrst, along with the other refugees, but soon the English pastoral scene was re-created: pasture for cattle, ﬁelds for corn, fences, solid wood houses with thatch and mud roofs.
American Stories: Living American History, Volume I, To 1877 by Jason Ripper