By Ravi P. Agarwal

ISBN-10: 0387712755

ISBN-13: 9780387712758

ISBN-10: 0387712763

ISBN-13: 9780387712765

This textbook presents a rigorous and lucid creation to the speculation of standard differential equations (ODEs), which function mathematical versions for lots of intriguing real-world difficulties in technological know-how, engineering, and different disciplines.

Key positive factors of this textbook:

Effectively organizes the topic into simply conceivable sections within the kind of forty two class-tested lectures

Provides a theoretical therapy by way of organizing the cloth round theorems and proofs

Uses targeted examples to force the presentation

Includes various workout units that motivate pursuing extensions of the fabric, every one with an "answers or tricks" section

Covers an array of complicated issues which permit for flexibility in constructing the topic past the basics

Provides very good grounding and notion for destiny examine contributions to the sphere of ODEs and similar areas

This ebook is perfect for a senior undergraduate or a graduate-level path on usual differential equations. necessities contain a path in calculus.

Series: Universitext

Ravi P. Agarwal acquired his Ph.D. in arithmetic from the Indian Institute of expertise, Madras, India. he's a professor of arithmetic on the Florida Institute of know-how. His learn pursuits contain numerical research, inequalities, mounted element theorems, and differential and distinction equations. he's the author/co-author of over 800 magazine articles and greater than 20 books, and actively contributes to over forty journals and publication sequence in a variety of capacities.

Donal O’Regan bought his Ph.D. in arithmetic from Oregon country collage, Oregon, U.S.A. he's a professor of arithmetic on the nationwide college of eire, Galway. he's the author/co-author of 14 books and has released over 650 papers on mounted aspect conception, operator, imperative, differential and distinction equations. He serves at the editorial board of many mathematical journals.

Previously, the authors have co-authored/co-edited the next books with Springer: *Infinite period difficulties for Differential, distinction and fundamental Equations; Singular Differential and critical Equations with functions; Nonlinear research and purposes: To V. Lakshmikanthan on his 80 ^{th} Birthday. *In addition, they've got collaborated with others at the following titles:

*Positive recommendations of Differential, distinction and imperative Equations; Oscillation conception for distinction and useful Differential Equations; Oscillation concept for moment Order Linear, Half-Linear, Superlinear and Sublinear Dynamic Equations.*

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**Extra info for An Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations**

**Example text**

Ii) xy 4 = 3(1 + cxy), y = 0. (iii) (y − 1)(1 + x) = c(1 − x)(1 + y). (iv) ex tan(x + c). 1) where p0 (x) (> 0), p1 (x) and p2 (x) are continuous in J. There does not exist any method to solve it except in a few rather restrictive cases. However, the results below follow immediately from the general theory of ﬁrst-order linear systems, which we shall present in later lectures. 1. , there does not exist a constant c such that y1 (x) = cy2 (x) for all x ∈ J. 2. 2) is diﬀerent from zero for some x = x0 in J.

10) in [x0 , ∞), and let z(x) be a continuously diﬀerentiable function in [x0 , ∞) such that z + p(x)z ≤ q(x), z(x0 ) ≤ y0 . Show that z(x) ≤ y(x) for all x in [x0 , ∞). In particular, for the problem y + y = cos x, y(0) = 1 verify that 2e−x − 1 ≤ y(x) ≤ 1, x ∈ [0, ∞). 7. Find the general solution of the following nonlinear DEs: 34 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Lecture 5 2(1 + y 3 ) + 3xy 2 y = 0. y + x(1 + xy 4 )y = 0. (1 − x2 )y + y 2 − 1 = 0. y − e−x y 2 − y − ex = 0. 8. Let the functions p0 , p1 , and r be continuous in J = [α, β] such that p0 (α) = p0 (β) = 0, p0 (x) > 0, x ∈ (α, β), p1 (x) > 0, x ∈ J, and α+ α dx = p0 (x) β β− dx = ∞, p0 (x) 0 < < β − α.

Note that β(β + 2r) → 0 as β → 0. 15. c1 x + (c2 /x) + (1/2)[(x − (1/x)) ln(1 + x) − x ln x − 1]. Lecture 7 Preliminaries to Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions So far, mostly we have engaged ourselves in solving DEs, tacitly assuming that there always exists a solution. However, the theory of existence and uniqueness of solutions of the initial value problems is quite complex. 1) where f (x, y) will be assumed to be continuous in a domain D containing the point (x0 , y0 ). 1) in an interval J containing x0 , we mean a function y(x) satisfying (i) y(x0 ) = y0 , (ii) y (x) exists for all x ∈ J, (iii) for all x ∈ J the points (x, y(x)) ∈ D, and (iv) y (x) = f (x, y(x)) for all x ∈ J.

### An Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations by Ravi P. Agarwal

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