By Holt Rinehart & Winston
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Extra resources for Animals Grade 6 (Holt Science & Technology Modules 2005)
The laser is easily changed. Data shown here was collected with a 350 milliwatt diode laser that directs a 670 nm wavelength beam of light with a proﬁle height of about 3 mm and a width of 1 mm across the scattering volume. An electromechanically operated half-wave plate periodically changes the polarization plane of the incident light to be either parallel or perpendicular to the scattering measurement plane. The detectors are placed behind 40 mm long holes that act as apertures to deﬁne the ﬁeld of view of each detector.
Aerosolized and dried nigrosin (or more commonly ‘India’ ink) is used as a calibration standard by many instruments that measure aerosol absorption (Abo Riziq et al. 2007); however, there is signiﬁcant variation between the reported refractive indices (Spindler et al. 2007). The uncertainty in these values probably arises from the fact that nigrosin is not manufactured for use as a standard, thus there are slight changes in the formulation from batch to batch. Also there are diﬀerences in how the nigrosin is aerosolized and dried.
Chung, 2007: Genetic algorithm inversion of dual polarization polar nephelometer data to determine aerosol refractive index. Aerosol Sci. , 41, 751–760. , M. Bailey, K. N. Liou, and J. Hallett, 2002: Light scattering properties of plate and column ice crystals generated in a laboratory cold chamber. Appl. , 41, 5792–5796. , and K. N. Liou, 2001: Polar nephelometer for light-scattering measurements of ice crystals. Opt. , 26, 232–234. , K. N. Liou, W. Gellerman, and P. Sokolsky, 1999: An analog light scattering experiment of hexagonal icelike particles.
Animals Grade 6 (Holt Science & Technology Modules 2005) by Holt Rinehart & Winston